On this page we would like to give you a brief overview to the most important standards and regulations concerning force testing.
The following European Standards define requirements concerning safety of automated doors and gates and specify test methods.
- BS EN 12445:2001
Industrial, commercial and garage doors and gates – Safety in use of power operated doors – Test methods
- BS EN 12453:2001
Industrial, commercial and garage doors and gates – Safety in use of power operated doors – Requirements
HSE Safety Notices
The British Health and Safety Executive has issued the following Safety Notices that summarize responsibilities of companies and landlords concerning gate safety:
- HSE – General Safety Notice OPSTD 1-2011
“Powered perimeter gates”
- HSE – Safety Notice FOD WSW 1-2010
“Risks to pedestrians from crushing zones on electrically powered gates”
- HSE – Safety Notice FOD 7-2010
“Risks to pedestrians from crushing zones on electrically powered gates – 2”
Force measurement according to BS EN 12445 and BS EN 12453
Definition of the force measuring equipment
In section 5.1 of BS EN 12445 detailed technical specifications of the required force measuring equipment are defined.
»The test equipment for measuring forces shall consist of the following parts:
- two contact areas with a diameter of 80 mm 1 %. The contact areas shall be made of suitable material and be of sufficient thickness to retain rigidity;
- a spring which gives the contact area a spring ratio of 500 N/mm ± 50 N/mm;
- a load cell with an amplifier and a display unit«
(See BS EN 12445:2001, 5.1.1)
Concerning data logging and -evaluation and -display the standard defines, that…
- …the instrument needs to cover a measurement range from 25 N to 2000 N.
- …the sampling rate of the signal input needs to be at least 200 Hz.
- …that calibration shall be performed at least once a year to ensure an accuracy of at least ± 5 %.
(See BS EN 12445:2001, 5.1.1 f.)
Force versus time evaluation
Annex A of BS EN 12453 deals with the evaluation of force-diagrams recorded during impact and reversing of a gate. It defines that from the moment of impact a five second force-time-diagram has to be recorded and the following result parameters have to be determined:
- Fdyn – Maximum force peak after impact
- tdyn – Period of time during which the force exceeds 150N
- Fend – Static force remaining 5s after impact
(See BS EN 12453:2001, Figure A.1)
For these parameters admissible values are given:
- Fdyn – See table.
- tdyn – The dynamic time period must not exceed 0.75 seconds.
- Fend – The static force five seconds after impact must not exceed 25 Newton.
|Admissible dynamic forces||between closing edges and counterclosing edges||between flat areas other than closing edges and counterclosing edges, > 0,1 m² with no side < 100 mm|
|in gaps from
50 mm to 500 mm
> 500 mm
|horizontally moving door||400 N||1400 N||1400 N|
|door rotating around an axis perpendicular to the floor||400 N||1400 N||1400 N|
|vertically moving door||400 N||400 N||1400 N|
|door rotating around an axis parallel to the floor – barriers||400 N||400 N||1400 N|
(See BS EN 12453:2001, A.2.1 f)
Detailed specifications concerning points of measuring and the measuring procedure are given in EN 12445 and are covered in section Measurement.
Health and Safety Requirements
After two fatal accidents involving electrically powered gates in 2010, Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published three Safety Notices informing gate manufacturers, installers, facility managers and landlords of property with powered perimeter gates about their responsibilities concerning gate safety. With regard to force limitation and testing it says:
- »[..] if you install or modify electrically powered gates in areas that people have access to [..] You need the right test equipment to measure closing/opening forces. If you do not have this equipment, you can’t be sure that the gates meet safety standards, then do not install them.«
- »All designers and installers of electrically powered gates should ensure that the forces generated by a gate when meeting a person or an obstacle are limited and that they do not exceed the values specified in Annex A of BS EN 12453:2001.
- These forces should be measured in accordance with BS EN 12445:2001. “Industrial commercial and garage doors and gates. Safety in use of power operated doors. Test methods” and the performance of the system validated before the gate is put into use.
- Forces should be periodically re-measured and checked as part of the planned preventative maintenance schedule for the gates.«
(See HSE Safety Notice, FOD 7-2010)
Concerning the responsibilities of landlords and facility management companies it says:
- »Check your gate is being maintained by a reputable company who regularly test the safety features of the gate to ensure they are set and working correctly – they should use measuring equipment to test closing forces. Keep a log of maintenance.«
- »Also ask them to show you the safety features including [..] the operation of the force limitation device.
(See HSE Safety Notice, OPSTD 1-2011)
Links on this subject:
- “Powered perimeter gates” – HSE Safety notice
- “Risks to pedestrians from crushing zones on electrically powered gates” – HSE Safety notice
- “Risks to pedestrians from crushing zones on electrically powered gates – 2” – HSE Safety notice
- British Standards Institution – Online Shop: BS EN 12445:2001
- British Standards Institution – Online Shop: BS EN 12453:2001